miscarriage Causes and Prevention in early pregnancy

How to prevent miscarriage in early pregnancy is really important because in that period the pregnancy is in vulnerable condition and it is one of the frightening problems for pregnant women.

What percent of pregnancies end in miscarriage?  

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, about 15-20% of pregnancies end in miscarriage.

How to prevent miscarriage in early pregnancy


Miscarriage is the cessation of pregnancy, before reaching the age of 20 weeks. This condition causes the baby is in the womb cannot survive. Miscarriages are more common between weeks 7 to 12, or better known as the first trimester of pregnancy.

Signs of Miscarriage  in early pregnancy

The mother should know the signs of a miscarriage. So that when women experience these conditions, the mother can get quickly and precisely in handling it.

Here are the signs of a miscarriage you should know:

Back Sore. Mother will feel sore and stiff on the back. Sore is also an indication or signs of impending labor. 

Premature contraction and abdominal contractions. Early contractions can occur in women who get miscarried before bleeding. Immediately take it to the doctor when women experience these symptoms.

Bleeding. In Stage light bleeding, the mother will only issue a little flecks. Whereas in severe bleeding mother will experience menstrual bleeding accompanied by great blood clots.

Stomach  Pain - The mother also will feel pain in her stomach. These conditions will cause tremendous pain, the mother's abdomen will feel kneaded and feels tingling.

Severe  Fever.  In certain circumstances, the mother also will feel the fever and shivering.
Spotting or bleeding is the main symptom of miscarriage, sometimes accompanied by lower

Abdominal pain. To make sure, the doctor will perform a pelvic exam, ultrasound, and laboratory.
Not easy to determine the exact cause of miscarriage.

Causes of Miscarriage  in early pregnancy

What are the causes of miscarriage?
Here are some of the conditions that may lead to miscarriage:
  • Chromosomal abnormalities

The main cause of miscarriage in the first trimester is a chromosomal disorder, as many as 50-70%. Chromosome is a structure that contains elements of human genetics.
Under normal circumstances, every human being has 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs. If the amount is less or more than 23 pairs, it can increase the risk of miscarriage, because a fetus cannot develop normally.

  • Placental disorders

The placenta is an organ that is formed of blood vessels tissue. This organ connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall.
Thus the fetus can receive nutrients and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. If there is a disruption of the placenta, the fetus is not getting enough nutrients and growth will be impaired.

  • Maternal age

Mothers who are pregnant at the age of 35 years will have a higher risk of miscarriage. This is caused by the declining quality of the egg, so that the fetus cannot develop properly.

  • Smoking habit

Mothers who smoke have a higher risk of miscarriage, which amounted to 35% compared to those who did not. Because indirectly mothers distribute toxic substances to the babies by smoking.

  • Obesity

Women with the overweight condition have the chances of miscarriage by 29%. Meanwhile, women who enter the category of obese have an increased risk of miscarriage by 67% higher than women of normal weight.

  • Lifestyle

Some lifestyles also affect the miscarriage, for example:
Drinking coffee more than 200 mg a day
Drinking alcohol

  • Diabetes

If there is an increase in blood sugar levels that occur continuously in pregnant women, fetal development will be interrupted and will increase the risk of miscarriage.


High blood pressure or hypertension can cause blood and oxygen supply to the fetus is reduced. This results in impaired fetal growth, which can lead to miscarriage.


  • Kidney illness

Kidney disease sufferers demand for dialysis. This condition increases the risk of miscarriage by 50%.


  • Hyperthyroid disease

Hyperthyroidism can occur due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. This condition causes increased thyroid hormone, thereby increasing the risk of miscarriage in the first trimester.

  • Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases such as measles, CMV (Citomegalo virus), bacterial vaginosis, HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that occurred in the first trimester may increase the risk of miscarriage.
To reduce or even prevent the risk of miscarriage, you should regularly conduct pregnancy tests at the doctor every month. Thus, the pregnancy can continue to be monitored well.
Many ways to prevent miscarriage in early pregnancy. Mothers should be able to carry out these measures in order to prevent miscarriages.

How to prevent and to reduce the risk of miscarriage in early pregnancy

Here are ways that can be done by young mothers to prevent and avoid the occurrence of miscarriage:

  • Having enough rest
  • Avoid Uphill Road
  • Avoid downhill road
  • Avoid too long walk
  • Avoid Lifting Heavy Load
  • Avoid smoking
  • Avoid Alcohol
  • Controlling Stress
  • Consuming Healthy Foods
  • Avoid Anemia
  • Avoid Consuming random Drugs
  • Avoid consuming artificial preservatives food 
  • Avoid smoking
  • Avoid drinking too much Caffeine
  • Avoid Radiation
  • Consuming Folic Acid

Treatments after miscarriage in early pregnancy

When mothers experienced miscarriage, the mother needs to be checked by a doctor to determine whether the process is completed or NOT. If there is still residual gestational sac conception or embryonic tissue remaining in the uterus.

How do you treat a miscarriage? 

To clean residual gestational sac conception or embryonic tissue remaining in the uterus. usually doctor will perform minor surgery such as dilatation and curettage.  Cleansing is done to prevent infections and complications in the womb, such as continuous bleeding, pain (cramps) prolonged post, or to avoid cause of tumors in the future.

During the action of dilatation and curettage, the patient can be given anesthesia and sedated so it does not feel pain. Cervix will be widened and a tool called a curette will be inserted into the uterus through the cervix to remove its contents. After the tissue removed, the uterus is cleaned with an antiseptic solution to prevent infection after curettage action.

That needs to be underlined is, curettage process should be performed by medical personnel with equipment that has been sterilized. If the equipment is not sterilized and performed by non-medical personnel, it was very dangerous. Due to the opening of the birth canal as a result of action both curettage was performed by medical or non-medical personnel, usually not in spite of the risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation or tear in the lining of the uterus to cause death.

Whereas, when cleaning the uterus using the drug, the drug would work by making the stomach "hardened" to cramping (abdominal contraction) to the rest of the gestational sac or tissue can be removed residual conception. It's just the time required when using the drug a little while (i.e. an average of 2-3 days) and during that time cause any discomfort to the patient. However, in some people, there is that within one day of the rest of the gestational sac could be straight out. But there is also two days, depending on the condition of each individual.

To be sure, whether the cleaning procedure that has described above has been going well, the mother can check it by doing the ultrasound procedure.

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