Tuberculosis Treatment in Toddler

Definition of Tuberculosis

What is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, this disease usually attacks the lungs, but can also affects almost every organ of the body. Tuberculosis is serious disease that needs controlled treatment from medical expert continuously.

This disease can infect a Toddler by contact with phlegm and also from inhaling water droplets and also transmission through sneeze or cough infection TB disease. Toddler usually contracted from adults, the environment and public transport.

Tuberculosis Treatment in Toddler

Tuberculosis Fact

WHO: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide.In 2015, 10.4 million people fell ill with TB and 1.8 million died from the disease (including 0.4 million among people with HIV). Over 95% of TB deaths occur in low and middle income countries. ( WHO Report, 2016)

Symptoms of Tuberculosis in Toddlers

Tuberculosis has the classic symptoms, they are:

  • Cough that may be coughing up phlegm. The cough lasts for 21 day or more.
  • Cough blood.
  • Chest feels pain when breathing or coughing.
  • Lost appetite.
  • Weight loss.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Excessive Sweating at night.
  • Fatigue.

Causes of Tuberculosis in Toddlers

Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Basil is spread through the air via bursts of point’s saliva from patients with active tuberculosis coughs.

Nevertheless, TB transmission is not easily spread. It usually takes some time. The longer a person is exposed or interacts with people with TB, the risk of transmission will be higher. For example, children who live with a person with TB will have a high risk for contracting.

The risk of transmission of Tuberculosis is also potentially increases for certain groups of people, among them are:

  • People who live in dense settlements and slums.
  • The elderly and children.
  • People with weakened immune systems, such as HIV, diabetes, cancer, and people who are malnourished.
  • Users of illegal drugs.
  • People who are addicted to liquor.
  • Users tobacco, for example in the form of cigarettes. Nearly 20 percent of TB cases triggered by smoking.

Besides the lungs, TB bacilli can also attack the bones, brain, digestive system, lymph nodes, urinary system, and the nervous system.

Prevention of tuberculosis

The main measures to prevent tuberculosis is to receive BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin). the vaccine is included in the list of mandatory immunization and given before the baby is 2 months old.

You can also prevent TB by always wearing a mask when in crowded places, when interacting with people with TB, and wash hands regularly (especially medical workers).

People with TB can transmit the disease if it has not undergone treatment within the time period prescribed by the doctor. If you have tuberculosis, the following steps will be very useful to prevent its spread in the family and the people around.

  • Cover your mouth when sneezing, coughing and laughing. You can also wear a mask. If you use a tissue, throw it away immediately after use.
  • Do not throw phlegm or spit.
  • Make sure your home has good air circulation, for example often open doors and windows to fresh air and sunlight to enter.
  • Stay at home and do not sleep in the same room with other people until at least several weeks after treatment.

Treatment of Tuberculosis in Toddler

Tuberculosis is Classified as serious disease that is curable and is rarely fatal if treated properly. Treatment steps used are antibiotics that must be spent by people with TB during a certain period as prescribed.

The types of antibiotics commonly used are isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Just like all other drugs,

TB healing period is different for each case and depends on the health condition and severity of TB sufferers experienced. Generally people with the condition will start to improve and stop TB infectious after taking antibiotics for 2 weeks. But to ensure a total cure, people with TB should use antibiotics that doctors prescribe for 6 months in some cases 12 months .

If sufferers not taking the drugs as prescribed or stop taking it before the recommended time, the Tuberculosis bacterium can not disappear completely even though sufferers feel his condition has improved. TB infection pathway also has the potential to become resistant to antibiotics. If this happens, TB will become more dangerous and difficult to treat so that the healing period will be considerably longer.

The side effects of Tuberculosis antibiotic drugs 

antibiotics for TB also have side effects, especially rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Rifampicin can reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives containing the hormone. While ethambutol can affect people with vision conditions. and isoniazid potentially damage nerve.

Some other side effects of TB drugs include nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, jaundice, dark urine, fever, rash, and itching of the skin.

Having regard to the variety of symptoms that may arise and the important factors that play a role in the transmission of Tuberculosis is expected as early parents can detect the possibility of children sick with TB and immediately took him to consult a doctor.

However, it should also be considered to prevent TB mania, parents need not worry too much against the symptoms prior to examination that proves their TB infection is the Mantoux test to prove it. Thus the diagnosis of TB in children can be enforced properly and there is no overdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of TB in children.

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