Treatment and Prevention of Rubella in Infants

As parent, you don't need to worry if your children have Rubella. this is not a fatal disease in children, but also it may not left untreated because Rubella is really contagious and painful. give the treatment quickly once you identify the symptoms. to relive the pain and to prevent transmission.

Treatment and Prevention of Rubella in Infants

What is Rubella?

Rubella or German measles is a viral infection that is characterized by a red rash on the skin. Rubella usually affects children and teens. The disease is caused by the rubella virus and can spread very easily.

The main transmission can be through coughing or sneezing. Sharing food and drinks in a plate or glass with the rubella patient. Similarly, if you touch your eyes, nose, or mouth after handling contaminated objects of rubella virus.

The disease is usually milder than measles. But if attacked women who are pregnant, especially before the age of five months of pregnancy, rubella has high potential to cause congenital rubella syndrome or even the death of the unborn baby. 

WHO estimates that each year about 100,000 babies worldwide are born with this syndrome.

Congenital rubella syndrome can cause birth defects, such as deafness, cataracts, congenital heart disease, brain damage, liver, and lungs. Type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and swelling of the brain also can develop in children born with this syndrome.

Symptoms of Rubella in Infants

Rubella in children tends to experience symptoms that are lighter than adult patients. But there are also people with rubella do not experience any symptoms and can transmit rubella.
This disease generally takes about 14-21 days of exposure to cause symptoms. Common symptoms of rubella include:
  • Fever.
  • Headache.
  • Stuffy or runny nose.
  • No appetite.
  • Slight irritation to eyes.
  • Swollen lymph glands in the ear and neck.
  • Shaped rash reddish spots that initially appear on the face and then spreads to the body, hands, and feet. The rash usually lasts 1-3 days.
  • Pain in the joints.

Once infected, the virus will spread to the entire body within 5 days to 1 week. The period of highest transmission of rubella patients usually in 1-5 days after the rash appears.
If you or your child has the above symptoms, immediately consult a doctor.

Rubella Diagnosis Process

Rash due to rubella have similar characteristics with other rashes. To confirm the diagnosis, doctors usually take a saliva or blood samples for laboratory analysis.

The test is used to detect the presence of rubella antibodies. If there is IgM antibody, meaning you're suffering from rubella. While the presence of IgM antibodies indicates that you have rubella or been vaccinated.

Examination could also be included in a series of prenatal tests for pregnant women, especially for high-risk. This examination is done through a blood test.

If pregnant women diagnosed with rubella, further investigation that may be recommended is an ultrasound and amniocentesis. Amniocentesis is a procedure retrieval and analysis of amniotic fluid samples to detect abnormalities in the fetus.

Rubella Treatment Methods

Rubella not requires special medical treatment. Treatment of Rubella can be done at home with simple steps. The goal is to relieve the symptoms, but not to accelerate the healing of the rubella. Here are some simple steps that can be done.
  • Rest as much as possible.
  • Drink lots of water to prevent dehydration.
  • Reduce pain and fever. Patients can consume paracetamol or ibuprofen to reduce fever and relieve pain in the joints.
  • Drinking warm water mixed with honey and lemon to relieve sore throat and runny nose.

Rubella Prevention in Infants

Prevention is the most effective by rubella vaccination, especially for women who plan to become pregnant. About 90 percent of people who receive the vaccine will be protected from rubella. 

Since the vaccination program, the number of rubella cases were recorded globally reduced significantly.

Usually immunization for children was given 2 times with the following distribution:
The first phase of time children aged 15-18 months with a distance of 6 months of immunization against measles.

The second phase is repeated by the age of 6 years.

In addition to the vaccine, preventing the transmission and spread of rubella is also important. the ways include:
  • Avoid contact with the patient as much as possible, especially for pregnant women who have not received the MMR vaccine and infants with weak immune systems.
  • Move the patient to a separate room away from family members.
  • Maintaining personal hygiene, for example, always wash hands before eating, after traveling, or if it comes in contact with patients.

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